Sunday, December 10, 2023

The Love Story of Richard Baxter and Margaret Charlton

The love story of ๐‘๐ข๐œ๐ก๐š๐ซ๐ ๐๐š๐ฑ๐ญ๐ž๐ซ and ๐Œ๐š๐ซ๐ ๐š๐ซ๐ž๐ญ ๐‚๐ก๐š๐ซ๐ฅ๐ญ๐จ๐ง has been written about by many including Frederick J. Powicke (๐ด ๐‘ƒ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐ผ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘™๐‘™, ๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ, ๐‘‡โ„Ž๐‘’ ๐‘…๐‘’๐‘ฃ. ๐‘…๐‘–๐‘โ„Ž๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘‘ ๐ต๐‘Ž๐‘ฅ๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ'๐‘  ๐ฟ๐‘œ๐‘ฃ๐‘’ ๐‘†๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฆ [1917]); John T. Wilkinson (๐‘…๐‘–๐‘โ„Ž๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘‘ ๐ต๐‘Ž๐‘ฅ๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘€๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘”๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘ก ๐ถโ„Ž๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘™๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘›: ๐ด ๐‘ƒ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐ฟ๐‘œ๐‘ฃ๐‘’ ๐‘†๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฆ [1928]); J.I. Packer (๐ด ๐บ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘’๐‘“ ๐‘†๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘“๐‘–๐‘’๐‘‘: ๐‘‡โ„Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ข๐‘”โ„Ž ๐‘†๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ค ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ป๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’ [2002]); and many others, including Richard Baxter himself (๐ด ๐ต๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘ฃ๐‘–๐‘Ž๐‘ก๐‘’ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ฟ๐‘–๐‘“๐‘’ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘€๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘”๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘ก, ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ท๐‘Ž๐‘ข๐‘”โ„Ž๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐น๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘๐‘–๐‘  ๐ถโ„Ž๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘™๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘› ... ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘Š๐‘–๐‘“๐‘’ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘…๐‘–๐‘โ„Ž๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘‘ ๐ต๐‘Ž๐‘ฅ๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ [1681]).
Some of the details are less known than others, but the major thrust of the story is that Richard first met Margaret when she was in her late teens as a parishioner at Kidderminster, where he was serving as minister who was at that time (in the late 1650s) in his mid-40s. She came from a wealthy family, and although her mother had a serious interest in Richard's ministry, Margaret was at that time much more frivolous in her lifestyle. She became very ill and was close to death, but Richard and his congregation fasted and prayed, and the Lord was pleased to restore her to good health. Her heart was not only moved to trust in Christ in a way that she had not done before, but also to see her pastor in a new light. On the day of her recovery — April 10, 1660 — she gave special thanks to God, and entered into a personal covenant with the Lord. Ever after, she kept the anniversary of that event as a personal remembrance.
Three days later, Richard was called to London in connection with the Restoration, participating in the 1661 Savoy Conference, and attending to other matters related to the impending ecclesiastical situation (ie., the 1662 Act of Uniformity which would lead many Puritans ministers to be forcibly removed from their pulpits). Margaret and her mother decided to follow Richard to London. Although her mother died in January 1661, and this was a heavy blow to Margaret, she drew closer to Richard. He had written previously of the need for single ministers to remain single during the anticipated forthcoming period of persecution. Margaret had confided her feelings for Richard, however, to a mutual lady friend, who went to speak to Richard about the situation, while Margaret stood on the other side of the door unbeknownst to him. He responded to the effect “That since he had passed his youth in celibacy, it would be reputed madness in him to marry a young woman.”
He little thought that Margaret was at the door listening for his reply. She could not take a denial, so, entering the room, she made her own appeal. ‘Dear Mr. Baxter, I protest with a sincere and real heart, I do not make a tender of myself to you upon any worldly account, but to have a more frequent converse with so holy and prudent a yoke-fellow, to assist me in my way to heaven, and to keep me steadfast in my perseverance, which I design for God’s glory and my own soul’s good.'

Richard at last surrendered to the claims of love, and the couple was married on September 10, 1662. It was a wedding that was much talked about, and gave occasion to some enemies of the gospel to mock them, but for Richard and Margaret, it was true mutual devotion. She was steadfast with him in all of his persecutions, and her financial provision enabled him to write as much as he did in the years of trial and tribulation, including while he was in prison. She ran the household well, and he admired her for all of her gifts and talents. They sang Psalms together each morning and evening.
She died at the age of 42 on June 14, 1681. After her death, Richard wrote a Breviate of her life. His Poetical Fragments, written in their early days together, were published at this time as well. He wrote of her:
When we were married, her sadness and melancholy vanished [following her mother's death]…And we lived in inviolated love and mutual complacency sensible of the benefit of mutual help. These near nineteen years I know not that we ever had any breach in the point of love, or point of interest.
If they had disagreements, they were minor. Powicke says:
Nevertheless, we differed (he says) on two points. One was this — that he disliked her borrowing — 'unless in some public or extraordinary case,' whereas she thought 'that, while she could give security, she ought to borrow to relieve the poor, especially the most worthy.' The other point was this — that while he was for 'exercising prudence in discerning the degrees of need and worth,' she held 'that we ought to give more or less to everyone that asketh, if we have it.'
Richard, although much older, lived a full decade after Margaret's passing. His grief was a sanctified one; his tribute to her memory is deeply touching to all who read. Both lived for Christ, and as husband and wife, they encouraged each other in the faith. Their love story is an encouragement to many even centuries later.

Thursday, November 5, 2020

Guest Book Review: The Escape

 Our post today is a book review by guest blogger K.G. Myers:

One of my favorite books is The Escape (Inheritance Publications, 1993) because of the
beautiful friendships, Christian beliefs, chases, traveling, and escapes in it. The main
character of The Escape, John, is a young, courageous Huguenot boy who tries to
escape religious persecution in France by fleeing to Holland with his little sister, Manette
and his best friend Camille. My favorite character is Camille.

There is an awesome sequel to The Escape called The Secret Mission in which John (now an adult) goes back to France to free his father who is serving a life sentence on the galleys. Both books are part of the Huguenot Inheritance Series, though only The Escape and The Secret Mission are written by A. Van Der Jagt. 

Though it takes place after the time of Martin Luther and John Calvin, they are both mentioned in the story. These stories helped me learn a lot about the Huguenots' experiences in the late 1600s and early 1700s.

It's a great story that can be read aloud to young children or read quietly by people of all ages. My Huguenot ancestors escaped from France in 1685 to England and then eventually traveled to Virginia (which is where I live now) a little like John, Manette, and Camille. 

Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.” 

Saturday, August 1, 2020

The Testimony of American Covenanters a Century Ago Regarding Civil Affairs

From a handbook published in 1929 for young American Covenanters, we find a helpful catechetical guide to navigating the issues that dissenting Christians face in the United States. The challenges and truths found in this guide from almost a century ago endure, and this testimony is worth repeating for readers in the 21st century. 

10. How should a profession of life affect one’s life as a citizen.

It should serve to enlist every noble quality of the soul in behalf of the state or nation in which the citizen resides and of all other nations as well.

11. What one thing above all others determines the character of a nation and paves the way for its well being on the one hand, or its undoing on the other?

Its attitude toward God.

12. What should be its attitude toward God in order to insure its well being?

It should sincerely believe and acknowledge three things: (1) That it has its right to exist, and receive all its authority, from God; (2) That God deals with nations, as with men, through His Son, Jesus Christ, the King; (3) That the Bible, written under the guidance and inspiration of the Holy Spirit, is the only book that can teach nations how to keep in the “paths of righteousness.”

13. What part of a Constitution is the proper place to make such a recognition?

The Preamble, or as it is sometimes called, the Enacting Clause.

14. Is there any specific example of a Preamble that would never to the three requirements that have just been maintained?

Yes, the Preamble to Rhode Island’s Compact of Government used to read: “We whose names are underwritten do hereby solemnly, in the presence of Jehovah, incorporate ourselves into a body politic; and, as He shall help, will submit our persons, lives, and estates unto our Lord Jesus Christ, the King of kings and Lord of lords, and to all those perfect and absolute laws of His given to us in His Holy Word of truth to be judged and guided thereby.”

15. Is there any marked difference between that Preamble and this? – “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

16. In your judgment which of the two would be likely to commend itself the more favorably to God and the Lord Jesus Christ?

17. What are some of the principal passages to prove that the former of these two Preambles is right in its attitude toward God, and that the latter is wrong?

(1) The Second Psalm throughout; especially the words, “Kiss the Son” – which constitute an explicit command to the nations of the earth to acknowledge Christ sincerely, devoutly, and devotedly.

(2) “The government shall be upon His shoulder.” “Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end.” Isaiah ix. 6,7.

(3) “Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord.” Psalm xxxiii. 12.

(4) “Jesus Christ, … the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords.” 1 Timothy vi. 15

(5) “The Lord is our Judge” – He is at the head of the judicial department of civil affairs; “The Lord is our Lawgiver” – He is at the head of the legislative department; “The Lord is our King” – He is at the head of the executive department. Isaiah xxxiii. 22.

(6) When Satan offered the Lord Jesus dominion over the nations of the earth on other terms than loyalty to the Father, Jesus said, “It is written, ‘Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.” Matthew iv. 10.

(7)  “Render … unto God the things that are God’s.” Matthew xxii. 21.

(8) Then, as to the use of the Word of God, read Deuteronomy xxii. 18-20 – a passage which contains instructions as binding on rulers today, and as necessary to good government at the present time, as they were the moment they were first uttered.

18. Does the Constitution of the United States, as it now stands, measure up with such passages as the foregoing?

19. Ought it to?

20. If the Bible teaches that nations ought to recognize Christ as King, and our nation does not so recognize Him, in what situation does such a fact place anyone who proposes to be loyal to Christ?

It places a man in the position where his first duty is to tell the truth about the situation in a clear, kindly, courageous manner, and where his second duty is to keep himself from becoming involved in the sin he is pointing out, and concerning which he is bearing witness.

21. Is there any command or advice in the Bible which defines the citizen’s duty explicitly, as touching the political situation in the United States today?

Yes; in Proverbs iii. 6 the Holy Spirit provides expressly for this, as well as for every other, situation in life, when He says, “In all thy ways acknowledge Him, and He shall direct thy paths.”

22. What does every voter in the United States have to do?

He has to place the stamp of his approval on the Constitution of the United States as it exists in fact at the time of his voting, and accept it for the time being as his programme of government.

23. Can a man be true to Christ in Civil affairs if he swears to support a Constitution that rules Christ out of civil affairs?

24. Does the Constitution claim to be “master”?

In its own language it says, “This Constitution … shall be the supreme law of the land.”

25. Can Christ, then, be “supreme” in political life, when the Constitution does not acknowledge His supremacy?

26. Which “master” will the consistent Christian choose to serve?

27. Which “master” have you decided to serve and to give your first allegiance to?

28. Does this mean that you are going to be disloyal to your country?

It means the very opposite of that, for if I am true to Christ I will have to do what I can to bring my country to Christ; and in doing that I will be doing the very best thing that can be done for my country’s welfare.

29. If some one, on learning what you believe, were to say to you, “O, you believe, then, in the union of church and state,” what would you say?

I would say, “That is the very thing I do not believe in; what I believe is, that both the church and the state ought to have a religion, and that the religion they ought to have is the religion of the Lord Jesus Christ; and that the church being one person, and the state being another person, each for itself can believe in Christ, and acknowledge Him independently, in the way which its own nature requires.”

-- The Young People's Manual (1929), pp. 75-82

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Guest Blogger: On Matthew Henry's Method for Prayer

Although this blog has not been too active of late, we are still here and we still cherish the Huguenots, Puritans and Covenanters, and others who held or hold to experimental piety. Today's guest post comes from my son, Sam (age 13). 

I have been reading Matthew Henry's A Method For Prayer, originally published in 1712 (Christian Focus Publications, 2017). This book has been a real blessing to me.

Using the Lord's Prayer as a model, the following are a few points Henry believes should be part of each Christian's prayer:
  • Address to God, Adoration of Him, with Suitable Acknowledgments, Professions, and Preparatory Requests - this speaks to how we honor Him, and hallow His name.
  • Confession of Complaints of ourselves, and humble Professions of Repentance - here we ask God to forgive us our sins.
  • Petition and Supplication for the good things. which we stand in need of - here we ask God for the things we need, such as our daily bread.
  • Thanksgiving for the mercies we have received and the many Favours of his we are interested in and have, and hope for Benefit by - Thanksgiving is not just once a year, but every day we have reason to give thanks to God for his mercies which are daily.

I have benefited greatly from Henry's book. It's an amazing book that all Christians should read. This book truly has helped my prayer life, and I'm glad it is still in print today. It is a treasure which can be a blessing to many. 

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Volume One of Mastricht's Theoretical-Practical Theology is Here!

Thanks to God, and the prayers and labors of many, including Reformation Heritage Books and the Dutch Reformation Translation Society, the Petrus Van Mastricht Translation Project, previously announced on this blog back in 2009, has borne its first fruit. The first volume (of a projected set of seven) is now available for purchase at RHB. This much-anticipated publication is occasion for great joy because it not only introduces English-speaking readers to the first full translation of Van Mastricht's Prolegomena, but the additional prefatory material is well worth its inclusion in this volume. 

Among the prefatory material we find an editor's preface by Joel Beeke, the translator's preface by Todd Rester, a revised and expanded biographical sketch of the author by Adriaan C. Neele (previously included in the 2005 The Art of Living to God: A Study of Method and Piety in Theoretico-Practica Theologia of Petrus Van Mastricht (1630-1706), and Henricus Pontanus' funeral oration for Van Mastricht. Also included is Van Mastricht's brief treatise The Best Method for Preaching, previously published in English in 2013. (Neele also published in 2009 Petrus Van Mastricht 1630-1706: Reformed Orthodoxy: Method and Piety; in 2002, a portion of Van Mastricht's Theoretico-Practica Theologia was translated into English and published under the title A Treatise on Regeneration in 2002).

Neele's earlier study of Van Mastricht's magnum opus remains a valuable resource even as English-speaking readers now begin to have more aoccess to Van Mastricht's own words. The first chapter serves as a commentary to the volume just published by RHB.

Much has already been said about Van Mastricht's Prolegomena by others on social media. This writer commends both Neele's study of Van Mastricht and the newly-translated volume by Mastricht himself. Truly, as Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather have indicated, this is a theological work that needs to be the companion of our studies.

For my own part, this writer has a special appreciation for a brief portion of the Prolegomena on mediation (see pp. 195-198). Van Mastricht understood the Biblical imperative to ruminate or chew the cud upon the Word of God, a much-neglected ordinance for Christians in our day.

Don't miss out on these contributions to the church (both Van Mastricht and Neele's study), and continue to pray for the success of the labors of those continuing to work on the remainder of the great work of Van Mastricht's life (a new Dutch translation is happening as well). It was a blessing to the church in the 17th century, and this translation will undoubtedly be a blessing to the 21st century church as well. 

Friday, June 1, 2018

Robert Annan on Scriptural Psalmody and the Opposition to It

Robert Annan (AssociateReformed minister, 1742-1819) is the author of a 1787 commentary of the Westminster Confession of Faith, which was republished in 1855 by the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, and edited by David McDill (1790-1870). Annan was also a friend of Adam Rankin (1755-1827), author of one of the earliest published defenses of exclusive Psalmody in America. 

The section in Annan’s commentary on the WCF pertaining to abuses in worship (which includes profaning the Sabbath, introducing man-made holidays into the church, etc.) is very instructive. He held to exclusive psalmody in stated worship, in opposition to the growing call for the use of Isaac Watts’ hymns in worship, but did not object per se to the private composition and use of uninspired hymns outside of worship. I will quote from it briefly, along with McGill’s editorial comments. He also opposed the use of instrumental music in worship further on in this chapter of the commentary.

Annan: “Whenever we introduce human inventions into divine service, we are apt to lose a zeal for divine institutions, and become enamored with our own vanities. God must be worshiped in a diligent attendance on all his ordinances, and a sincere observance of them. The ordinary acts of the worship of God are, prayer, confession, and praise. ‘Praise waits for thee, God, in Zion,’ says the Psalmist, ‘unto thee shall the vow be performed. thou that art the hearer of prayer, all flesh shall come to thee. Iniquities, I must confess, do prevail against me; but as for our transgressions, thou shalt purge them away.’ — Psalm lxv. And we are not afraid to assert, and vindicate the propriety of using the psalms and songs of the Old Testament in the praises of God. In these days of prevailing infidelity and atheism, while many with ignorant boldness and absurd effrontery deny the inspiration of the Scriptures altogether, and earnestly attempt to carry us back into their beloved regions of heathen darkness; others, who have only a form of godliness without the power, have become very cool and indifferent about the Word of God, either in whole or in part. And hence arises a great temptation to true Christians, which, if not resisted, may diminish their zeal, love, and esteem for the Word of God. The churches of Christ in different ages and places, had, and still have peculiar temptations, from which great, and often unseen dangers threaten them. The present prevalence of deistical opinions, of Socinian, Arian, and Arminian errors, is a severe trial of the faith and patience of the saints. But blessed is he that keepeth his garments clean.

We are extremely sorry to have observed a growing disrelish in some Churches, for the psalms of David and other songs of Scripture. We could wish for a more finished poetical version of these, than any yet given to the Churches. And we do not mean to say, that hymns of human composition may not be lawfully used in any case whatsoever.*

But we think it is safest, generally to adhere to the Scriptural psalmody; and it is remarkable, that the most erroneous and deluded sectaries are fondest of uninspired hymns, which, doubtless they will take care to have composed, each party on its own peculiar scheme of principles. It is dangerous for the Church, in any important parts of her worship, to drop rule and order; and leave her members to follow each his own inclination. It has much grieved the hearts of tender Christians, to hear the psalms of David represented as in some instances, inconsistent with a Gospel spirit, and unfit for the New Testament dispensation; and such language, we fear, has greatly aided the cause of infidelity. It was wrong-headed wisdom to push forward the foaming torrent.

Christ came not to destroy the books of the prophets; among which prophets, David, Asaph and Ethan were eminent. If he had seen the psalmody of the Jewish Church unfit for the Gospel dispensation, it would have been easy with him, to have given his Church a new system: but we have no hint of this; nay, it is evident, that he and his apostles used the scriptural Psalms in the praises of God; and every one must allow, that the book of Psalms is remarkable for its New Testament style. It comes nearer to the simple evangelical spirit, and style of the New Testament, than most of the Old Testament books. The graces and experiences of God's children in all ages, are there most beautifully delineated; sometimes indeed typical language is introduced, as when it is said; ‘I will go to God's altar. He smote the rock and the waters gushed out, He rained down manna on them and gave them corn of heaven to eat.’ But the Redeemer never appears to us more in his glory, than when shadowed forth by these types, with the light of the New Testament shining on them. In this case, we have both the type and the antitype placed in our view, reflecting and augmenting the light of each other. This is a double light; and in this instance that word is fulfilled, ‘The light of the moon, or of the type, is like the light of the sun: and the light of the sun, that is, of the antitype, is like the light of seven days.’

If it be objected, that there are, in the Psalms, terrible predictions of God's judgments, on the enemies of his kingdom; it may be answered, so there are through all the New Testament. How often does Christ, the meek Lamb of God, pronounce terrible woes against his opposers? Paul says, ‘If we, or an angel from heaven, preach unto you any other Gospel, than that which we have preached, let him be accursed! If any man love not the Lord Jesus, let him be an Anathema maranatha.’ In fine, as in the providence of God, mercy and judgment are blended; so in his Word, mercy and justice, terror and consolation, majesty and meekness combine everywhere their rays. And is not this infinitely suitable to the constitution of human nature? There are two powerful springs of action in the human mind, hope and fear; Noah, being moved with fear and hope too, prepared an ark to the saving of his house. Moses, moved by fear and faith, kept the passover and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the first-born should touch them. God, therefore, adapts his Word to our rational nature. He addresses our hopes and fears; and they must be very ignorant of human nature, who suppose it can be moved or actuated in any other way. It is absurd to suppose, that anything of the Psalmist's personal resentment breathes in these predictions and threatenings. The very threatenings of God's Word, viewed in their connection with the Gospel, are evidences of his love. ‘As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten, says Christ; be therefore zealous and repent.’ They are intended for our warning, and are subservient to the success of the Gospel.

One evil seldom comes alone; it is commonly followed by a gloomy train; as we fear, many have injured the matter of the Church's praise, by forsaking the fountain of living waters, and hewing out broken cisterns; so we are well convinced, that the manner of performing this solemn act of religious worship, is in some Churches greatly corrupted. What unprejudiced mind is not grieved, to see the solemn work of praising God, committed to a few light-headed boys and girls, about whose carriage, there is often little or no semblance of piety or seriousness, while the whole congregation, or nearly the whole, sit dumb? Who is not offended to see the worship of God turned into a mere piece of human art and carnal amusement, the singing of his praise performed with idle theatrical parade? It is certain, that this new mode has as effectually, perhaps more effectually, expelled the praises of God from the lips of far the greatest number in some Churches, than an act of Parliament for the purpose could have done. And it has produced the same effect in many families. It has expelled his praise from the dwellings even of the righteous. They say, they cannot sing; that is, they cannot sing in the fashionable mode, and therefore do not attempt it at all. And along with this the reading of the Scriptures, in family worship, is, in many families laid aside. We wish not to be rigorous or uncandid; but when we see Christians deceived through the subtleties and devices of Satan, turned aside from their duty, and cheated out of their privileges, why should we be silent? The use of the organ, and other instruments of music in the Jewish Church, was agreeable enough to a worldly sanctuary, and the pomp of ceremonial worship; but does not accord so well with the spiritual nature of the New Testament: yet we must grant, that in those Churches where it is retained, it does not work more, if as much, mischief, as the mode of which we speak: the organ leads the music, the people follow: but in a general way, where the new mode is practiced, the people are silent, and commit the whole service to a few delegates. Is not this to serve the Lord by proxy? And if men could be judged too, at the bar of God, by proxy, something might be said. Our sinful nature is very dexterous in inventing apologies for what is wrong. Many justify this evil by saying, in time the whole congregation will acquire the new mode, and consequently all join in the worship. Under this pretext, it has been introduced into several Churches in New England. But experience contradicts this; for in those Churches where it has been longest practiced, the evil seems rather to increase than decrease; the habit becomes more confirmed, and it is generally taken for granted, that the people have no business with the duty, that it belongs entirely and only to the chorister and his train.” (Exposition and Defense of the Westminster Assembly’s Confession of Faith, pp. 180-186.)

McDill adds (p. 182): “* ‘And we do not mean to say, that hymns of human composition, may not be lawfully used in any case whatsoever.’ Candor forbids that any construction should be put on this sentence, which would place it in conflict with the earnest protest which the writer enters against the use of 'uninspired hymns,' in the room of, or in preference to, the ‘inspired songs.’ The well-known views of Mr. Annan, as expressed in a letter to Rev. A. Rankin, of Lexington, Kentucky, and on other occasions, also forbid. We can state from memory how the language was understood and explained by some who had the best opportunity of knowing how the writer explained it, and wished it to be understood. You may read a pious poem in a devotional manner to edification, without treating the Word of God with neglect, provided you do not substitute it for the reading of the Scriptures, in the services of the sanctuary or in the ordinary stated worship of God in the family. Under the same restrictions, you may add the charms of music, and sing it, without displacing the inspired psalmody. But while the writer would forbear to say, that this may never be ‘lawfully’ done, he still thinks it good to administer a caution against it, as not entirely safe.”

The letter to which McGill refers was written in 1785, and had been republished in 1854 in The Evangelical Repository. A portion of what Annan had to say about the principles at stake in the psalmody question that was convulsing the Presbyterian church at that time is reproduced here. (The full letter and the full commentary on the Westminster Confession of Faith can be found at Log College Press here.)

Annan to Rankin: “I cannot help ranking the present opposition to the pure scriptural Psalmody in the same class with Deism, Socinianism, Arianism, Arminianism, Universal Salvation, Antinomianism, and that it is a trial of the faith and patience of the saints. May the Lord enable us to stand fast, and to keep clean garments. Conscious of much unworthiness, and that I am less than the least of all saints, yet I should shudder to chime in with the prevailing defamation, not to say blaspheming of that part of the Word of God, the book of Psalms, which indeed falls equally, though indirectly, on the whole of the Old Testament, and from that rebounds with equal force on the New Testament; for without faith in the one, I cannot see how there can be a true and saving faith in the other….I pretend not to be wiser than others, much less to infallibility; but I must judge for myself, and I see no great danger of being too strongly attached to the Word of God, or any part of it, not even to what they call the old, obsolete Jewish Psalms. The danger is all on the other side. Often, too often, my carnal heart has started objections against the book of God; and had not the Lord made me frequently taste the goodness and sweetness of it, I might have been a Deist. And what good fruits have proceeded from those men's innovations and polishings? Now, who were the first offended with the scriptural Psalmody, and most forward to introduce the new? To my certain knowledge, in New York, (where it first began in the Presbyterian churches,) they were the carnal and worldly part of professors, who could find no spiritual delight in any part of Divine worship. And have their attempts been blessed? Have conversions been promoted? Have saints been more edified, united, and sanctified, by their improvements? Is the worship of God more spiritual, heavenly, and holy? Let the fruits declare it.”

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Psalms the True Gospel Music

It is a curious bit of history that the first published reference to gospel music identified the Psalms of David as such (Nathaniel Ho[l]mes (1599-1678), Gospel Musick: or, The Singing of Davids Psalms, &c. in the Publick Congregations, or Private Families, Asserted and Vindicated, 1644 - per Robert M. Stevenson, "Evangelistic Song" (1957). The modern understanding of what gospel music is (a particular genre of uninspired hymnody), however, often attributes its origin to a man named Ira D. Sankey (1840-1908), a musical composer associated with Dwight Moody and his revival services, who in 1875 co-published Gospel Hymns and Sacred Songs. There are other rival claimants to the title of the originator of gospel music, as it is now understood, but Sankey was known as The Sweet Singer of Methodism (akin to David, who was known as The Sweet Singer of Israel, 2 Sam. 23.1).

There was a Reformed Presbyterian minister in the 19th century by the name of Nathan Robinson Johnston (1820-1904, known for his missionary endeavors among the Chinese in California, among other things), who wrote a fascinating biography titled Looking Back From the Sunset Land; or, People Worth Knowing (1898). He was "a lineal descendant of Sir Archibald Johnston, or Lord Warriston whom the Scotch Covenant-breakers hung in Edinburgh," as he himself notes. Among the interesting vignettes of which he writes, there is one involving Sankey that is very poignant. As a Reformed Presbyterian, he held to the practice of exclusive psalmody -- that is, singing the Psalms alone in worship. But he writes candidly of an encounter with Sankey that resonates over a century later.

...together we listened with rapture to Mr. Moody's song companion, Ira D. Sankey. By the way, if ever an 'old Psalm-singer' is tempted to become a hymn-singer it must be at those meetings where everybody joins in chorus with Mr. Sankey in some of his songs as no other can sing them. By the way again, Ira D. Sankey might not be the last one to be brought to our belief in the exclusive use of the inspired songs of the Bible. He has a great admiration for them, and he once said to me that he would like to use them if they were more beautifully versified. His emphasized statement is that in his public singing he is only 'singing the Gospel.' As yet, however, he is far from accurate in his views. Some years ago, in pleasant talk with him in San Francisco, I could not convince him that the 'psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs' mentioned by Paul are all found in the book of the Bible called the 'Book of Psalms.' Nor is Mr. Sankey alone in his opinion. Some good people believe that the 'hymn' which Jesus and his disciples sang after the Passover and before he went out to the Mount of Olives, was only the effusion of some poetic genius among his followers. (Looking Back From the Sunset Land, pp. 569-570)

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

Happy 500th Anniversary of the Reformation!

In celebration of the 500th anniversary of the Reformation, which began (in a sense) with the posting of Martin Luther's 95 Theses on the church door of Wittenburg, Germany, Log College Press has posted select works by 19th century American Presbyterians which study the Reformation from a variety of angles. Be sure to check out our latest blog post here. Happy Reformation Day! 

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Early American Presbyterians on the French Huguenots

There is a fascinating body of works by 19th century American Presbyterians written in appreciation of the French Huguenots, fellow Calvinists who were so influential in the founding of America. At Log College Press, I have assembled some of those works in one place for readers who may also appreciate the common bond between Presbyterian and Huguenot. There are lots of works to bookmark, download and enjoy!

Sunday, October 8, 2017

Early American Presbyterian Literature on Psalmody

Recently, I contributed a blog post to the Log College Press. This is an ongoing project to make accessible American Presbyterian literature from the 18th and 19th centuries in digital format, and eventually, in print. On this occasion, I have compiled in one place a number of works from Reformed Presbyterian (Covenanter), Associate Reformed Presbyterian and United Presbyterian sources dealing with the issue of psalmody in worship. There is a lot to read here so feel free to bookmark the post if you are interested. 

Monday, June 26, 2017

Lewis Lupton: The Michelangelo of Chiswick

Best known as the author of the 25-volume A History of the Geneva Bible (London: Fauconberg Press; The Olive Tree, 1966-1994), which was indeed his magnum opus as Peter Toon once wrote, Lewis Lupton was not only a church historian and writer, but also an artist, storyteller, theologian and loving husband and father. As David Martyn Lloyd-Jones once put it, "Mr. Lupton has not only the eye of an artist but also the nose of the true historian, and above all the understanding of one well versed in the Reformed faith." In the words of J.I. Packer, Mr. Lupton was "[a]n artist with brush and pen as well as words and wisdom." The story of his life and legacy is one that deserves to be more widely known.

Born on July 18, 1909, in Fulham, London, as the oldest of seven children, Lewis Frederick Lupton (known as "Luppy" to some) was recognized early to have a gift for artistic talent. His family moved to Sheffield -- where they attended the Mount Olivet Strict Baptist Chapel -- when he was very young, and after leaving school at the age of 12, he was given a scholarship to study at the Sheffield College of Arts and Crafts for a period of seven years. This is where he met (Phyllis) Joan Ainger, the future Mrs. Lupton. 

[Lewis Lupton self portrait, 1929.]

After their marriage in 1934, they moved to London the following year. Mr. Lupton was asked by a fellow Sheffielder, Victor Askew, to join his commercial art studio, Askew Younge Studios. While there he worked on advertising projects for a wide range of firms including Marconi, and P and O. In 1939, Mr. Lupton illustrated both Kathleen Conyngham Greene, The Rector's Second Daughter; and James Cahill, The Pilot of Indian Leap. In 1940, he illustrated Brian Reed, The World Goes By Machines, and he was the illustrator for Wilfrid Robertson, The Island Plot (1942), for Christopher Beck, et al., The Triumph Book for Boys (1942), for Violet M. Methley, Derry Down-Under (1943) and for S.C. George, Eagle of the Desert (1943). The Luptons later became members of the North Rd. Strict Baptist Chapel, Brentford, and meanwhile, their son Jude was born in 1939.

During World War II, he exhibited several oil paintings in the Royal Academy, some of which were chosen to tour the country. He was also a keen water color painter and never traveled without his easel and paints. During the war he needed to develop further commercial art clients and found work with City Display Organisation. As a conscientious objector he chose not to take work promoting the war effort, but designed posters for the Ministry of Fuel and Power, and Dig for Victory campaign. The house where the family was living in Chiswick was destroyed by bombing in 1941, but Jude was rescued unharmed from his cot. The family lived in temporary accommodations until they bought their current home in 1944. Two daughters, Esther and Julia, were born after the war, and the family later settled at Gunnersbury Baptist church in Chiswick.

After the war he illustrated many books published by Scripture Union (formerly the Children’s Special Service Mission or CSSM), and was encouraged in his work by his boss, A Morgan Derham. In 1948 he illustrated Mr. Derham’s On the Trail of the Windward: A Story of the Norfolk Broads, followed by Mr. Derham’s The Cruise of the Clipper: A Story of the Norfolk Broads (1952) and Bluewater Mere (1954). He also illustrated many of the children's novels by Patricia St. John, such as The Tanglewoods’ Secret (1948), Treasures of the Snow (1950), Star of Light (1953) and Rainbow Garden (1960); and others such as Deborah Bennett, Jean’s Black Diamond: A Story of Australia (1951), Son of Diamond: A Story of Australia (1952) and Susan’s Conquest: A Story of Australia (1956); Joyce Reason, Laughter of the Desert (1952); David Britten, The Making of Stephen Hall (1954); Elisabeth Batt, The House With the Blind Window (1955), In Search of Simon (1956) and The Wilde Riders (1960); Christine Savery, Red Knights from Hy Brasil (1955); Leslie S. Ward, Touchdown to Adventure (1958); Will Maggs, Head-Hunters’ Moon (1958); Constance Savery, Flight to Freedom (1958); Margaret Barry, Julie Westaway (1958); Gordon Parke, Coffins for Traitors (1958); Mary Batchelor, All For Good (1958); Richard Armstrong, Sabatoge at the Forge (1960); Maurice Cox, Virginian Rebel (1960); Godfrey C. Robinson and Stephen F. Winward, In the Holy Land: A Journey Along the King’s Highways (1963); O.L. Rice, My Friend Linda (1976); and Elizabeth Mumford, Holiday in the Mountains (n.d.). His love of art and his Christian convictions led him to illustrate and design exhibitions for organizations such as The British and Foreign Bible Society, Strict Baptist Mission and Scripture Union (he illustrated, for example, John C. Pollock, The Good Seed, Story of CSSM & Scripture Union, 1959), and for The Evangelical Magazine. It was during his time at SU that he started writing, later entering Captured into their annual children’s writer competition.

[All For Good by Mary Batchelor, 1958.]

It was in 1959 that Mr. Lupton spoke at the Puritan Conference at Westminster Chapel. Dr. David Martyn Lloyd-Jones after hearing his lecture encouraged him to publish his work. Mr. Lupton would go on to create the original logo for the publisher, Banner of Truth, as well as illustrate many cover sketches for Banner of Truth publications, including the design for the Geneva series of Bible commentaries. His artwork appears on two volumes by J.C. Ryle that were reprinted by Banner of Truth in 1960: Five Christian Leaders and Five English Reformers; as well as the 1960 BoT edition of James Bannerman’s classic, The Church of Christ.

An exhibition designer during and after WWII, Mr. Lupton once met the Queen Mother at the opening of the 1951 Faith of Britain exhibition, which he had designed. Too embarrassed to wear his hearing aid (he was deaf), he unable to hear what she said. In A History of the Geneva Bible, he noted “isolated as I am by deafness and devoted to my art, social relationships cannot be my strong point; yet, as I go about looking for subjects to sketch I am continually swept by waves of rapture for the physical world around me” (3:188-189).

It was after WWII that Mr. Lupton had an experience that was life-changing. He tells the story in the first volume of what would become the great work of his life, A History of the Geneva Bible (1:11-12):

It was on a sketching tour soon after the War that I fell in love with a [Geneva] Bible. It lay invitingly open in a window shop in Chichester. The left-hand page had an old map with galleons and sea monsters on it while the right had a gorgeously decorative title and border. It was early closing day so we drove on to Bosham with our easels and canvasses. But I always regretted missing that Bible and in the end, some three years later, I wrote to see if it was still there. It was, and thereby hangs this tale.

I soon found that there was more to the volume than met the eye, especially for people who feel a sneaking sympathy with those underdogs of our school history books -- the Puritans and Roundheads. I found that this old book was a real Puritan Bible. As I dug out more and more bits of information about it I found myself back in a thrilling world of romance, of little ships slipping their moorings at night, of galloping horses, of the roar of siege cannon, of snowy Alpine passes, of printing presses, of men who feared neither man nor devil, Queen nor Emperor, of a royal Duchess trudging a lonely road in pouring rain at midnight and carrying her husband's sword while he carried her baby, of love among exiles in foreign cities, of births, of deaths and a hundred other things of which I could write if this book were a Geneva quarto or one of Christopher Barker's great folios instead of a mere 20th century demy octavo.

This experience led Mr. Lupton to not only cherish the Geneva Bible and begin a 25-volume study of its history, but also contributed to his appreciation for and contributions towards hand-lettered calligraphy, which he used from volume eight forward, with a quill pen. The individual volumes are a treasure, because each has the feel of a book written especially for the reader.

[The first volume of Mr. Lupton's magnum opus.]

The preface to the fourth volume of A History of the Geneva Bible was written by Dr. David Martyn Lloyd-Jones, and sheds more light on both the man and his magnum opus (4:7-8): 

For many years I had known of Mr. Lewis Lupton's interest in the Geneva Bible, and having heard his paper on the subject at a "Puritan Conference" some years back, I was delighted when he told me that intended publishing the story of its history in several volumes.

I have already greatly enjoyed the first three volumes and it is now my privilege to write this word of Introduction to the fourth volume.

All who have read the previous volumes will need no encouragement to read this one, but for the sake of those who may not have done so, I would call attention to certain special features of this series of books.

They are of unusual interest and importance at the present time. We have been bombarded by new translations of the Bible during the past twenty years, so it is particularly valuable to have this history of one of the most important and influential translations ever made.

Fortunately for us, however, Mr. Lupton does not confine himself solely to that theme. He rightly includes the entire history of that most fascinating period during which the shape of the different sections of the Christian church in Britain was being determined. At a time when the nature of the church and its form of government is constantly before us because of the various ecumenical activities, it is essential that all branches of the church should be familiar with their origins and factors that determined what happened.

Here we have it all in detail - the troubles at Frankfurt, the prejudices and the divisions, and the mighty influence of John Calvin at Geneva.

At the same time there are cameos of the great men of those days who were gathered together in various places, and who grappled with the great questions which are in our day and generation still burning and vital issues.

I am particularly glad that Mr. Lupton has "spread" himself. Far too often we are given mere summaries, or an expression of the prejudices of the author; but here, the facts are allowed to speak for themselves and we see these men who belonged to the second generation of Protestant leaders as they were, and as they met their daily problems.

At the same time we are led into what, from the purely theological standpoint, are most interesting by-paths, where we learn something about printing, art, etc. 

Personally I always find this type of book not only interesting but truly instructive and stimulating, and the larger the number of facts and details the better.

Mr. Lupton has not only the eye of an artist but also the nose of the true historian, and above all the understanding of one well versed in the Reformed faith. I need say nothing about the sheer delight to the eye of these volumes.

This particular volume is worthy of its predecessors and whets our appetite for what is yet to come.

It was also in the 1960's that Mr. Lupton set up (with others) The Fauconberg Press (named for Lady Mary, daughter of Oliver Cromwell, known as Countess Fauconberg), the publishing arm of the Strict Baptist Historical Society. Books he illustrated for TFP include J.H. Alexander, More Than Notion (1964) (a story of revival); Lewis Lupton, Red Indian Peril: The Story of John Eliot, the Apostle of the Red Indians, Translator of the Bible no-one can read and the First Protestant English Missionary (1965); Lewis Lupton, Captured: Being the Adventures of a Puritan Boy, Sandy Williams, of Deerfield in Massachusetts, New England, in the year 1704. How he was Captured by the Abenaki Indians; his residence in Canada and Acquaintance with Mademoiselle Carignan and other of the French Nobility, with all that he suffered at the hands of the Governor and Priests; together with an Account of the Remarkable Sequel now set forth by Lewis Lupton (1965); and Lewis Lupton, Behind Mr. Bunyan (1968) (a true story of Agnes Beaumont, who belonged to John Bunyan's Meeting). These stories engage not only younger but older readers as well (Captured has "A Preface for Young Older Folk," "Another Preface, For Younger Young Folk," and "An Introduction, For Nobody"). The prominent theme in these works is a desire on the part of the writer/illustrator to bring church history alive and make Puritan Christianity relevant to our day.

[Portrait of Lewis Lupton by Julia Button from Captured, 1965.]

Mr. Lupton shared personal remarks often in his History of the Geneva Bible, and the last volume he published (it was considered “unfinished” at the time of his death in 1996) contains interesting comments he made in the postscript. In the context of describing his appreciation for the influence of Dr. J.I. Packer, Dr. D.M. Lloyd-Jones and Rev. Peter Toon, he had this to say about what the “rediscovery” of Puritan theology meant to him personally.

Another plank in our ‘Puritan’ platform was called the ‘Banner books,’ reprints of puritan tomes, splendidly printed, a venture of the greatest value, which still does much good worldwide. These excellent works are puffed on their way by a magazine, of which I count No. 11 as a turning point in my thinking, for it was devoted to the ‘Free Offer.’ Brought up on predestinarian Baptist preaching, and confirmed in the same by studies of, and around, the Geneva Bible, I was familiar with its rediscovery at Geneva, Beza’s chart of ‘double’ predestination, and the perils of ‘hypercalvinism.’ Therefore the ‘Banner’s’ summary of the Biblical doctrine of the ‘well meant’ offers of mercy to all, brought pure joy to my troubled heart, while Boston’s ‘Fourfold State,’ wiped the last vestige of a frown from my Father’s face. (25:111)

In 1968, Mr. Lupton toured the area around Christ Church, Spitalfields, a place known to history for its warm embrace of French Huguenot refugees. He wrote about his experience and provided illustrations of his tour, which are available to see here.

The Olive Tree published a facsimile reprint of Anne Locke’s 1560 English translation of the French Sermons of John Calvin upon the Song that Ezechias made after he had been sick and afflicted by the hand of God, contained in the 39th chapter of Isaiah (modernized English title), along with her poetic meditation on Psalm 51 under the title Mrs. Locke’s Little Book (1973).

[Portrait of Lewis Lupton by Joan Lupton.]

A man who loved the visual as well as the written word, he illustrated the ceiling of his house showing the gospel from Genesis to Revelation (which was featured in the 1989 Observer). It was painted in oils directly on the plaster. He created a similar illustration on the ceiling of another house. Those who have seen the ceilings continue to marvel about them to this day.

He died on July 16, 1996. Almost exactly two years later, Joan passed away on July 2, 1998. His three children (Jude, Esther and Julia) still own the Lupton house, and Jude lives there to this day. Mr. Lupton has been memorialized in several places. The Strict Baptist Historical Society published his obituary, as did Iain Murray in the October 1996 Banner of Truth Magazine [I have just read Mr. Murray's tribute to his friend shortly before publishing this article, and it is a wonderful encomium]. A page in his honor tells the story of his life and highlights his skill as an illustrator in Donald L. Brake and Shelly Beach, A Visual History of the King James Bible: The Dramatic Story of the World's Best-Known Translation (2011), which also includes many varied and beautiful illustrations by Mr. Lupton. Peter Toon, the great Anglican minister and historian, in Puritans and Calvinism (1973) (whose 1967 book Hypercalvinism, was published by Mr. Lupton's The Olive Tree), had this to say in his preface about Mr. Lupton: 

I dedicate this book to two men, both of whom are twice my age.  They have never met but they share a common enthusiasm for all that is best in Puritan divinity.  First, by reason of his greater age, is Norman F. Douty of Pennsylvania, preacher, teacher and theologian.  This year he celebrates the fiftieth anniversary of his ordination to the Christian ministry in the Baptist denomination.  He has given me the privilege of seeing through the press for him his major study entitled The Believer’s Union with Christ to be published by Reiner Publications in April 1973.  Second, Lewis F. Lupton, artist, historian and theologian.  Two of his paintings hang in my house and his portraits of my wife and me are in my study.  He is engaged in publishing a truly magnum opus, a History of the Geneva Bible in at least seven volumes, four of which have appeared already.  Enriched by beautiful illustrations, the books are published by Mr. Lupton’s own publishing house, The Olive Tree of Chiswick, London.

In researching this article, I have corresponded with his daughter Julia, and a number of others who have known Mr. Lupton over the years. Many have offered me testimonies of his character, anecdotes of his life, and access to his works. I am greatly indebted to each of them. I would note also that Mr. Phil Roberts of Tentmaker Publications has rights to the reprinting of A History of the Geneva Bible, and some volumes have already been reprinted.

[The Resurrection Tree by Lewis Lupton.]

In 1965, Mr. Lupton wrote of himself, “For the last decade he has devoted much of his time to the illustration of Christian literature. He now finds the appeal of the three creative activities, writing, painting, and drawing almost equally balanced. Like most people with artistic gifts he is spurred on by the hope of producing some work of lasting merit, but at middle age it still remains to the seen whether he will make any permanent mark.” There are no statues standing in London so far as this writer knows to honor "the Michelangelo of Chiswick." Charles Spurgeon once wrote, however, that “A good character is the best tombstone. Those who loved you and were helped by you will remember you when forget-me-nots have withered. Carve your name on hearts, not on marble.” We have precious writings and beautiful illustrations to cherish from Mr. Lupton's hand. But his legacy lives on most particularly in the hearts of his loved ones, and those who knew him - and those who wish they had known him. 

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

Biographies of Reformation, Puritan, Covenanter and Huguenot Women of the Faith

(Miss Katherine G. Myers reading Marie Durand by Simonetta Carr)

I have often been asked to help provide biographical resources regarding leading ladies of the Reformation, Puritan, Scottish Covenanter and French Huguenot eras. Considering the volumes that have been written on Martin Luther’s “Katie” alone, such a list could be endless; but I have attempted here to consolidate the key resources that I would recommend, along with links to these volumes either in print or online for handy reference. I have left out such ladies as Anne Hutchinson, Marie Dentiรจre, and Anna Maria van Schurman (known as “The Tenth Muse”), each of whom would require a separate blog post. There were many godly women who stood alongside the godly men of those days. Their stories are worthy to read and remain inspirational today.

1. J.H. Alexander, Ladies of the Reformation

5. Roland Bainton, Women of the Reformation: In France and England The great biographer of Martin Luther has also spanned Europe to make known the stories of godly women of the Reformation era.

9. W.P. Breed, Jenny Geddes, or, Presbyterianism And Its Great Conflict With Despotism (See the first chapter particularly)
10. Simonetta Carr, Lady Jane Grey Simonetta Carr has done a great service to the church by her biographies, which are geared towards younger readers.

15. Faith Cook, Anne Bradstreet: Pilgrim and Poet Anne Bradstreet was also known as “The Tenth Muse.”

17. W.H. Davenport Adams, The Sunshine of Domestic Life; or, Sketches of Womanly Virtues, and Stories of the Lives of Noble Women

19. Alice Morse Earle, Margaret Winthrop: Biography of a Puritan Woman, the Wife of John Winthrop, First Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

20. James I. Good, [Famous] Women of the Reformed Church

21. John C. Johnston, Treasury of the Scottish Covenant (see the chapters on “The Women of the Covenant” and “The Wigtown Martyrs”)

22. Hope Irvin Marston, Against the Tide: The Valor of Margaret Wilson The story of Margaret Wilson is inspirational, but heart-wrenching, so let the reader be forewarned.

23. J.C. McFeeters, Sketches of the Covenanters (see the chapter titled “The Daughters of the Covenant”)

25. Leslie Nuernberg, Only Glory Awaits: The Story of Anne Askew

26. Alexander Smellie, Men of the Covenant (see the chapter titled “Those Women Which Laboured in the Gospel”)

27. Ernst Staehelin, Frau Wibrandis: A Woman in the Time of Reformation

28. Rebecca VanDoodeward, Reformation Women: Sixteenth-Century Figures Who Shaped Christianity’s Rebirth

29. John T. Wilkinson, ed., Richard Baxter and Margaret Chilton: A Puritan Love Story; Being the Breviate of the Life of Margaret Baxter (Breviate online; J.I. Packer, A Grief Sanctified)

30. Paul F.M. Zahl, Five Women of the English Reformation The five women are: Anne Boleyn, Katharine Parr, Jane Grey, Anne Askew and Catherine Willoughby.